Myosatellite cell – Wikipedia

Myosatellite cells or satellite cells are small multipotent cells with virtually no cytoplasm found in mature muscle.[1] Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle cells, able to give rise to satellite cells or differentiated skeletal muscle cells.[2] They have the potential to provide additional myonuclei to their parent muscle fiber, or return to a quiescent state.[3] More specifically, upon activation, satellite cells can re-enter the cell cycle to proliferate and differentiate into myoblasts.[4]

Myosatellite cells are located between the basement membrane and the sarcolemma of muscle fibers,[5] and can lie in grooves either parallel or transversely to the longitudinal axis of the fibre. Their distribution across the fibre can vary significantly. Non-proliferative, quiescent myosatellite cells, which adjoin resting skeletal muscles, can be identified by their distinct location between sarcolemma and basal lamina, a high nuclear-to-cytoplasmic volume ratio, few organelles (e.g. ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, golgi complexes), small nuclear size, and a large quantity of nuclear heterochromatin relative to myonuclei. On the other hand, activated satellite cells have an increased number of caveolae, cytoplasmic organelles, and decreased levels of heterochromatin.[2] Satellite cells are able to differentiate and fuse to augment existing muscle fibers and to form new fibers. These cells represent the oldest known adult stem cell niche, and are involved in the normal growth of muscle, as well as regeneration following injury or disease.

In undamaged muscle, the majority of satellite cells are quiescent; they neither differentiate nor undergo cell division. In response to mechanical strain, satellite cells become activated. Activated satellite cells initially proliferate as skeletal myoblasts before undergoing myogenic differentiation.[1]

Satellite cells express a number of distinctive genetic markers. Current thinking is that most satellite cells express PAX7 and PAX3.[6] Satellite cells in the head musculature have a unique developmental program,[7] and are Pax3-negative. Moreover, both quiescent and activated human satellite cells can be identified by the membrane-bound neural cell adhesion molecule (N-CAM/CD56/Leu-19), a cell-surface glycoprotein. Myocyte nuclear factor (MNF), and c-met proto-oncogene (receptor for hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)) are less commonly used markers.[2]

CD34 and Myf5 markers specifically define the majority of quiescent satellite cells.[8] Activated satellite cells prove problematic to identify, especially as their markers change with the degree of activation; for example, greater activation results in the progressive loss of Pax7 expression as they enter the proliferative stage. However, Pax7 is expressed prominently after satellite cell differentiation.[9] Greater activation also results in increased expression of myogenic basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4 all responsible for the induction of myocyte-specific genes.[10] HGF testing is also used to identify active satellite cells.[2] Activated satellite cells also begin expressing muscle-specific filament proteins such as desmin as they differentiate.

The field of satellite cell biology suffers from the same technical difficulties as other stem cell fields. Studies rely almost exclusively on Flow cytometry and fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, which gives no information about cell lineage or behaviour. As such, the satellite cell niche is relatively ill-defined and it is likely that it consists of multiple sub-populations.

When muscle cells undergo injury, quiescent satellite cells are released from beneath the basement membrane. They become activated and re-enter the cell cycle. These dividing cells are known as the "transit amplifying pool" before undergoing myogenic differentiation to form new (post-mitotic) myotubes. There is also evidence suggesting that these cells are capable of fusing with existing myofibers to facilitate growth and repair.[1]

The process of muscle regeneration involves considerable remodeling of extracellular matrix and, where extensive damage occurs, is incomplete. Fibroblasts within the muscle deposit scar tissue, which can impair muscle function, and is a significant part of the pathology of muscular dystrophies.

Satellite cells proliferate following muscle trauma[11] and form new myofibers through a process similar to fetal muscle development.[12] After several cell divisions, the satellite cells begin to fuse with the damaged myotubes and undergo further differentiations and maturation, with peripheral nuclei as in hallmark.[12] One of the first roles described for IGF-1 was its involvement in the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. In addition, IGF-1 expression in skeletal muscle extends the capacity to activate satellite cell proliferation (Charkravarthy, et al., 2000), increasing and prolonging the beneficial effects to the aging muscle. [13][14]

Aged muscle cells in mammalian hearts constantly regenerate, albeit at a very low rate. Within 18 months around five percent of the heart muscle cells regenerated themselves originating from Sca-1 stem cells[15]

Satellite cell activation is measured by the extent of proliferation and differentiation. Typically, satellite cell content is expressed per muscle fiber or as a percentage of total nuclear content, the sum of satellite cell nuclei and myonuclei. While the adaptive response to exercise largely varies on an individual basis on factors such as genetics, age, diet, acclimatization to exercise, and exercise volume, human studies have demonstrated general trends.[2]

It is suggested that exercise triggers the release of signaling molecules including inflammatory substances, cytokines and growth factors from surrounding connective tissues and active skeletal muscles.[2] Notably, HGF, a cytokine, is transferred from the extracellular matrix into muscles through the nitric-oxide dependent pathway. It is thought that HGF activates satellite cells, while insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-1) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF) enhance satellite cell proliferation rate following activation.[16] Studies have demonstrated that intense exercise generally increases IGF-1 production, though individual responses vary significantly.[17][18] More specifically, IGF-1 exists in two isoforms: mechano growth factor (MGF) and IGF-IEa.[19] While the former induces activation and proliferation, the latter causes differentiation of proliferating satellite cells.[19]

Human studies have shown that both high resistance training and endurance training have yielded an increased number of satellite cells.[9][20] These results suggest that a light, endurance training regimen may be useful to counteract the age-correlated satellite cell decrease.[2] In high-resistance training, activation and proliferation of satellite cells are evidenced by increased cyclin D1 mRNA, and p21 mRNA levels. This is consistent with the fact that cyclin D1 and p21 upregulation correlates to division and differentiation of cells.[3]

Satellite cell activation has also been demonstrated on an ultrastructural level following exercise. Aerobic exercise has been shown to significantly increase granular endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes, and mitochondria of the stimulated muscle groups. Additionally, satellite cells have been shown to fuse with muscle fibers, developing new muscle fibers.[21] Other ultrastructural evidence for activated satellite cells include increased concentration of Golgi apparatus and pinocytotic vesicles.[22]

Upon minimal stimulation, satellite cells in vitro or in vivo will undergo a myogenic differentiation program.

Unfortunately, it seems that transplanted satellite cells have a limited capacity for migration, and are only able to regenerate muscle in the region of the delivery site. As such, systemic treatments or even the treatment of an entire muscle in this way is not possible. However, other cells in the body such as pericytes and hematopoietic stem cells have all been shown to be able to contribute to muscle repair in a similar manner to the endogenous satellite cell. The advantage of using these cell types for therapy in muscle diseases is that they can be systemically delivered, autonomously migrating to the site of injury. Particularly successful recently has been the delivery of mesoangioblast cells into the Golden Retriever dog model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy, which effectively cured the disease.[23] However, the sample size used was relatively small and the study has since been criticized for a lack of appropriate controls for the use of immunosuppressive drugs.Recently, it has been reported that Pax7 expressing cells contribute to dermal wound repair by adopting a fibrotic phenotype through a Wnt/-catenin mediated process.[24]

Little is known of the regulation of satellite cells. Whilst together PAX3 and PAX7 currently form the definitive satellite markers, Pax genes are notoriously poor transcriptional activators. The dynamics of activation and quiesence and the induction of the myogenic program through the myogenic regulatory factors, Myf5, MyoD, myogenin, and MRF4 remains to be determined.

There is some research indicating that satellite cells are negatively regulated by a protein called myostatin. Increased levels of myostatin up-regulate a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor called p21 and thereby inhibit the differentiation of satellite cells.[25]

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Dogs jint in the body dependn a lr f cartilage, ting a hk-brbr inid the jint. It l provides a urf the djining bn n mv easily vr h thr. The snvil fluid provides the lubritin that helps this process.

Arthriti causes the rtilg to wear w nd become rugh.

Sometimes bn are starting to rub themselves tgthr. Th nvil fluid also disappears and starts ling it lubriting properties. Chng like these for Dogs can rt fritin nd in inid th joint.

It n also ur together with bnrml lignmnt f bn tht mk u a jint, as well as with hi dysplasia (a genetic di whr thr i bnrml hllwn of the joint kt) or with some trum, aging nd ntinul wr nd tr n th jint structures.

Dogs tht r vrwight gt rthriti at a rlir g nd mr severely, as th jint mut rr a grtr load than they should stem cell therapy for dogs could help your dog deal with that.

Arthritis due to aging is a very popular problem with more than 70% of certain dogs having this problem. Arthritis n l ur in a joint with no obvious u. Arthriti can affect n or mr jint. An joint can b fftd, but th most mmn jint r th hip, kn, shoulder nd elbow, wll the spine.

For certain things, there are very breed-specific problems for dogs. For example, Newfoundlands have the highest prevalence of cruciate ligament disease of allbreeds. Rottweilers have more knee and ankle problems, but Bernese Mountain dogs commonly get elbow dysplasia.

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Stem Cell Therapy For Dogs - Treat Dog Arthritis & Joint ...

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A company called Vet-Stem, which is based in San Diego, California, has started offering stem cell therapy treatment for dogs with arthritis or tendon and ligament injuries.

The company claims to have successfully treated 3,000 horses with tendon and ligament injuries since 2004, and is now offering a similar treatment for dogs via veterinary surgeons trained by Vet-Stem.

The stem cell therapy treatment takes place as follows:

Studies by clinics using this procedure on dogs with osteoarthritis and orthopedic soft tissue injuries show the benefit of each injection to last from several months to over a year.

According to Robert Harman DVM and founder of Vet-Stem, the treatment works because stem cells do more than just morph into the required body tissue they provide growth factors and chemicals that help the injury heal by, amongst other things, reducing inflammation and preventing scar tissue from forming.

This sounds good, but as with all new therapy treatments the long term effects are as yet unknown.

The treatment is costly according to a Live Science article it ranges from US$2,000 to $3,000 but may be worth considering as a treatment option if you have an arthritic dog whos in severe pain and has difficulty moving around.

The Vet-Stem web site has more information about stem cell therapy for dogs and lists the vets it has trained to apply the treatment.

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Stem Cell Therapy for Dogs - Dog Topics

One dog’s stem-cell venture | The Star

By Barbara Turnbullliving reporter

Sat., July 18, 2009

Chip is a frisky, friendly 3-year-old chocolate Labrador. He's also a cutting-edge laboratory experiment.

While the promise of stem-cell therapies remain largely unfulfilled for humans, they are succeeding in leaps and bounds in dogs like Chip, whose transplant for his elbow dysplasia did what drugs, physio, water therapy and two surgeries could not. Elbow dysplasia, common in certain dog breeds, is a condition involving multiple developmental abnormalities of the elbow-joint.

"It's so exciting that they can do this," says Toronto resident Anne Molloy, about the April transplant of her pet's own stem cells.

Chip started limping at age 3 months, although he still loved to play and fetch, Molloy says. "You'd throw the stick for him and he'd start running, then buckle," she says. "We could never take him on a walk. It was very sad."

By a year his limp was bad enough that strangers constantly approached with concern and advice and he required a high dose anti-inflammatory and pain medication. After trying everything else, Molloy decided to try using her animal's own ability to heal itself.

The therapy, by San Diego's Vet-Stem, a company specializing in regenerative veterinary medicine, has been used successfully on horses since 2004 and dogs for the last 18 months.

About 3,500 horses and 2,000 dogs have been treated for hip and elbow dysplasia, osteoarthritis and tendon and ligament injuries, with success rates between 75 per cent and 95 per cent, according to survey results from veterinarians and owners, says company founder Bob Harman.

Here's how it works:

While the animal is under general anesthetic, several tablespoons of fat are extracted from the abdomen or behind the shoulder, which is shipped overnight to the San Diego lab. That's the worst part for the dog. On receipt of the fat, clinicians separate the stem cells from all other tissue, count the cells and divide them into proper doses within four hours, shipping one or two doses back to be injected into the joint the following day. The injection takes moments and is done under mild sedation.

Then magic seems to happen. The introduction of the stem cells to the injured joint signals anti-inflammatory cells and new blood cells to form.

It's expensive about $3,500 but cheaper than joint replacement, which costs up to $10,000.

Some 2,000 veterinarians are certified to perform the procedure in the U.S., but there are fewer than 20 in Canada. Its launch here was six months ago in Halifax.

"In our clinic, we're doing them almost every day, weekly certainly," says Dr. Christine Zink, a veterinarian and professor at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine in Baltimore, and an expert on canine agility. Other treatments have low efficacy, particularly compared to this, she says.

Most animals show reduced lameness, pain and swelling and increased range of motion within two weeks of the transplant, though improvement continues for up to six months.

That's what happened to Chip, who perked right up, Molloy said.

Dr. Rona Sherebrin, of the Secord Animal Clinic, is the only vet certified by Vet-Stem in the GTA and practises at the clinic Molloy already attended.

"The fantastic thing about it is that it's using the dog's own tissue," Sherebrin says, eliminating transplant complications and the need for immunosuppressive drugs.

Most fat extractions provide enough stem cells for four doses. The remaining ones are stored, frozen, at Vet-Stem, for the future, Harman says.

And future injections are usually necessary. The transplant works for about a year in most dogs, which means one extraction is usually enough for older dogs.

Some dogs can go longer, depending on their activity level, Sherebrin says.

The procedure doesn't eliminate problems. Chip still needs some pain medication, but just a fraction of the high dose he required before. He also limps a little after hard play.

"If you've got a joint that's abnormal and you heal it, it's still got an abnormal shape and it's still going to end up having more tendency to arthritic changes," Sherebrin says.

The procedure is not approved in North America for people, although it's in clinical trials in the U.S., Europe, Japan and Australia, Harman notes.

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One dog's stem-cell venture | The Star

Stem Cell Therapy for Dogs – Vetinfo.com

Stem cell therapy is also available for canines and involves collecting the stem cells from fat and using these in pets with arthritis, injuries and fractures. The stem cells will help the regeneration of the tendons, ligaments, joints and bones. Stem cell therapy is typically used in dogs that dont respond to conventional treatment.

The used of stem cell therapy in canines is very recent and has been developed following the successful application of the therapy in humans. The stem cells can be found in most tissues of the dogs body. In the stem cell therapy, the cells that are utilized are taken from:

Stem cells can easily transform into various types of tissue such as bone or tendon. These tissues will help in the repair of various injuries and defects.

Its important to differentiate between the adult stem cells and the embryonic stem cells. The embryonic stem cells are obtained from embryos, while the adult stem cells are obtained from fat tissue. In canines, only adult stem cells are being utilized, as their effect is more predictable. The adult stem cells may be harvested from the dog that is being treated and after being developed, it will be placed into the areas that are treated. In this manner, the dog will not reject the cells and the chances of recovery are very high.

In canines, the stem cell therapy may be used in the following conditions:

Arthritis is a common disease in dogs and this cannot be cured. Many traditional treatment methods may relieve the pain, but may not be 100% effective. The autologous stem cell treatment (i.e. the stem cells are taken from the patient, processed and placed in the same patient) may give better results in managing arthritis and in many dogs, the condition will improve as the joints will be repaired. The procedure is simple:

The stem cells for injuries such as tendonitis or fractures are used in the same manner as in the case of arthritis. The stem cells will be injected at the site of the injury. Typically, the dog will recover sooner than if other types of treatments are administered.

The therapy can be applied in older injuries, ideally less than 60 to 90 days old, but even older injuries can be treated.

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Stem Cell Therapy for Dogs - Vetinfo.com

954-753-7069

Stem cell technology is a new and exciting branch of veterinary medicine. Stem cells are cells that can be safely harvested from a variety of adult animal tissues (primarily fat tissue). Once harvested, the stem cells can be injected and induced to grow into a large number of different cell types.

Stem cell therapy offers the possibility of using these stem cells to grow into replacements for injured or diseased tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, nerves, and so on. What makes this such an exciting treatment option is that it allows us to introduce real tissue replacements for damaged tissues, rather than artificial replacement implants. Currently stem cell therapy for dogs is primarily being used with some success to treat bone, joint,ligament problems and autoimmune conditions.

The technology involves the use of adult stem cells, which can be easily obtained, without any harm to the host animal from which they are taken. A small amount of adipose (fat) tissue is surgically removed from a host animal and a centrifuge is used to separate the stem cells from the fat tissue. The tissue does have to be removed surgically, so if you are considering stem cell therapy later in your pet's life, we recommend obtaining the tissue during another procedure, such as a spay or neuter. The stem cells collected are then injected directly into the injured joint, ligament, or bone where they quickly begin to grow, potentially replacing the damaged tissue with new, healthy tissue.

Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for becoming a viable treatment option for a variety of health issues dogs face.

At Metairie Small Animal Hospital, we believe that providing your canine companion with the highest quality medical care means being on the cutting edge of the latest technologies and procedures. This is reflected in every aspect of our approach to stem cell therapy for dogs. Our facilities feature state-of-the-art equipment, and our veterinary team stays up to date on the latest canine stem cell research available.

The ideal candidate for canine stem cell therapy is a dog in otherwise good health that suffers from arthritis or hip dysplasia, and who doesn't respond well to his or her medication. Or, a dog whose quality of life might further suffer due to invasive surgical procedures. Because canine stem cell therapy uses the patient's own tissues, a canine must be in overall good health in order for any collected stem cells to be effective.

Canine stem cells are collected through removing either fat cells, or various other applicable tissues from a dog's body. Within these tissues and cells exist regenerative cells that are known colloquially as dog stem cells. The regenerative cells that are collected do several things:

The best part is that canine stem cells are not synthetic cells being added to a living, biological organism. Rather, canine stem cells are a dog's own natural healing cells.Because of this, there is much less chance of rejection or adverse interaction, and there are also fewer potential side effects.

Due to the infancy of canine stem cell research and therapies, there is not yet a large body of information about possible adverse side effects. Just like any medical procedure, the risk for adverse side effects from dog stem cell therapy are ever-present. Risks could be associated with the tissue removal procedure, or from a patient's body rejecting the newly placed cells. Other issues with stem cell therapy for dogs include its effectiveness when used alone. This is because the prescription of traditional medication will accompany stem cell therapy procedures.

Deciding whether or not stem cell therapy for dogs is the right choice for your beloved canine companion is a very personal one. No matter what route you choose to take, we are here to help you make the decision that is in the best interest of your dog, and alsofits your budget and lifestyle.

At this time, most stem cell research for dogs currently focuses on treating bone, joint, and ligament problems, rather than treating more advanced illnesses and diseases. We are extremely confident that the day will come when many canine illnesses and diseases can be treated through advances in canine stem cell research.

One thing seems to be clear, stem cell research for dogs promises to revolutionize the veterinary industry, and is already showing good results with canines that have been treated with dog stem cells to repair joints, bones, or ligaments that have been damaged by injury or disease. We are here to help educate you about the latest canine stem cell research advances, and answer any other questions about dog stem cell therapy you might have.

If you would like to discuss how stem cell therapy can benefit your dog, please contact us to schedule an appointment. Our veterinary team can help you decide whether or not canine stem cell therapy is the right option, including discussing cost and prognosis.

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Wound licking – Wikipedia

Wound licking is an instinctive response in humans and many other animals to lick an injury. Dogs, cats, small rodents, horses, and primates all lick wounds.[1] Saliva contains tissue factor which promotes the blood clotting mechanism. The enzyme lysozyme is found in many tissues and is known to attack the cell walls of many gram-positive bacteria, aiding in defense against infection. Tears are also beneficial to wounds due to the lysozyme enzyme. However, there are also infection risks due to bacteria in the human mouth.

Oral mucosa heals faster than skin,[2] suggesting that saliva may have properties that aid wound healing. Saliva contains cell-derived tissue factor, and many compounds that are antibacterial or promote healing. Salivary tissue factor, associated with microvesicles shed from cells in the mouth, promotes wound healing through the extrinsic blood coagulation cascade.[3][4][5] The enzymes lysozyme and peroxidase,[6] defensins,[7] cystatins and an antibody, IgA,[8] are all antibacterial. Thrombospondin and some other components are antiviral.[9][10] A protease inhibitor, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, is present in saliva and is both antibacterial and antiviral, and a promoter of wound healing.[11][12] Nitrates that are naturally found in saliva break down into nitric oxide on contact with skin, which will inhibit bacterial growth.[13] Saliva contains growth factors[14] such as epidermal growth factor,[15] VEGF,[16] TGF-1,[17] leptin,[18][19] IGF-I,[20][21] lysophosphatidic acid,[22][23] hyaluronan[24] and NGF,[25][26][27] which all promote healing, although levels of EGF and NGF in humans are much lower than those in rats. In humans, histatins may play a larger role.[28][29] As well as being growth factors, IGF-I and TGF- induce antimicrobial peptides.[30] Saliva also contains an analgesic, opiorphin.[31] Licking will also tend to debride the wound and remove gross contamination from the affected area.In a recent study, scientists have confirmed through several experiments that the protein responsible for healing properties in human saliva is, in fact, histatin. Scientists are now looking for ways to make use of this information in ways that can lead to chronic wounds, burns, and injuries being healed by saliva, making this type of treatment as common as antibiotic creams and rubbing alcohol.[32]

It has been long observed that the licking of their wounds by dogs might be beneficial. Indeed, a dog's saliva is bactericidal against the bacteria Escherichia coli and Streptococcus canis, although not against coagulase positive Staphylococcus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.[33]Wound licking is also important in other animals. Removal of the salivary glands of mice[34] and rats slows wound healing, and communal licking of wounds among rodents accelerates wound healing.[35][36] Communal licking is common in several primate species. In macaques, hair surrounding a wound and any dirt is removed, and the wound is licked, healing without infection.[37]

Wound licking is beneficial but too much licking can be harmful. An Elizabethan collar may be used on pet animals to prevent them from biting an injury or excessively licking it, which can cause a lick granuloma. These lesions are often infected by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus intermedius.[38] Infection is another risk. Horses that lick wounds may become infected by a stomach parasite, Habronema, a type of nematode worm. The rabies virus may be transmitted between animals, such as the kudu antelopes by wound licking of wounds with residual infectious saliva.[39]

There are many legends involving healing wounds by licking them or applying saliva. Saint Magdalena de Pazzi is said to have cured a nun of sores and scabs in 1589 by licking her limbs.[40] The Roman Emperor Vespasian is said to have performed a healing of a blind man using his saliva.[41] Pliny the Elder in his Natural History reported that a fasting woman's saliva is an effective cure for bloodshot eyes.

There are potential health hazards in wound licking due to infection risk, especially in immunocompromised patients. Human saliva contains a wide variety of bacteria that are harmless in the mouth, but that may cause significant infection if introduced into a wound. A notable case was a diabetic man who licked his bleeding thumb following a minor bicycle accident, and subsequently had to have the thumb amputated after it became infected with Eikenella corrodens from his saliva.[42] The practice of metzitzah during circumcision is controversial as it can transmit the herpes virus to the infant.[43]

Dog saliva has been said by many cultures to have curative powers in people.[44][45] "Langue de chien, langue de mdecin" is a French saying meaning "A dog's tongue is a doctor's tongue", and a Latin quote that "Lingua canis dum lingit vulnus curat" or "A dog's saliva can heal your wound" appears in a thirteenth-century manuscript.[46] In Ancient Greece, dogs at the shrine of Aesculapius were trained to lick patients, and snake saliva was also applied to wounds.[47] Saint Roch in the Middle Ages was said to have been cured of a plague of sores by licking from his dog.[48] The Assyrian Queen Semiramis is supposed to have attempted to resurrect the slain Armenian king Ara the Beautiful by having the dog god Aralez lick his wounds.[49] In the Scottish Highlands in the nineteenth century, dog lick was believed to be effective for treating wounds and sores.[50] In the Gospel of Luke (16:19-31), Lazarus the Beggar's sores are licked by dogs, although no curative effects are reported by the Evangelist.

There are contemporary reports of the healing properties of dog saliva. Fijian fishermen are reported to allow dogs to lick their wounds to promote healing,[13] and a case of dog saliva promoting wound healing was reported in the Lancet medical journal.[51]

As with the licking of wounds by people, wound licking by animals carries a risk of infection. Allowing pet cats to lick open wounds can cause cellulitis[52][53] and septicemia[54][55] due to bacterial infections. Licking of open wounds by dogs could transmit rabies if the dog is infected with rabies,[56] although this is said by the CDC to be rare.[57] Dog saliva has been reported to complicate the healing of ulcers.[58] Another issue is the possibility of an allergy to proteins in the saliva of pets, such as Fel d 1 in cat allergy and Can f 1 in dog allergy.[59] Cases of serious infection following the licking of wounds by pets include:

To "lick your wounds" means to "withdraw temporarily while recovering from a defeat"[70]

The phrase was spoken by Antony in John Dryden's seventeenth century play All for Love:[71]

They look on us at distance, and, like cursScaped from the lion's paws, they bay far offAnd lick their wounds, and faintly threaten war.

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Wound licking - Wikipedia

Stem Cell Therapy for Skin Allergy in Dogs and Cats (Pets …

Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats (before and after), treated by Dr. Kraemeer

Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergies in dogs and cats is now being offered by Dr. Kraemer (DrKraemers.com)Vet4HealthyPet Advanced Medical Care Orange County California Location (Vet4HealthyPet.com). Stem Cell Therapy (regenerative medicine) for dogs and cats has been extensively researched for itspain relief, anti-arthritis, anti-inflammatory and immune modulation properties.

Atopic allergic itch dermatitis is one of the most common skin allergies in dogs and cats. Allergic itch skin dermatitis in pets is usually manifested by the dog or cat itching, biting and causing self-trauma which then leads to hair loss (alopecia) and often secondary bacterial skin infection (pyoderma) and secondary yeast infection (Malassezia).Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergies in Dogs and Cats is showing great therapeutic promise. (StemCell4Pet.com)

Atopic allergic skin dermatitis conjures up thoughts of stressed animals, unhappy owners and frustrated veterinarians. Atopic itch allergic dermatitis in pets is possibly the number one reason for a veterinary office visit for a dog or cat owner. Atopic itch skin dermatitis in pets can be chronic and often requires treatment over an extended period of time, thus a major financial burden to the pet owner.

Stem cells are powerful healing cells that both you and your pet naturally store in a dormant form. Yourdog or cats stem cells are extracted from their fat (adipose tissue) among a mixture of cells termed the Stromal Vascular Fraction (SVF). The SVF is rich in complementary cells and bioactive peptides that contribute to cell proliferation and tissue regeneration.

Dr. Kraemers in house stem cell therapy isolates stem cells from your dog or cats fatty tissue, then activates them (placing the cells into a hyperactive mode) and within hours, reintroduces them to injured and needed body parts.

Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats before treatment (Severe pododermatitis)

Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats after treatment by Dr. Kraemer

In contrast to your pets food allergies, avoiding implicated outdoors allergens (grass, weed, trees etc.) and even indoor allergies (mold, dust mites, human dander etc.) is usually difficult to accomplish. Traditionally, most dogs and cats who suffer from allergic itching atopic skin dermatitis are prescribed medication to help modify their symptoms (i.e. anti itching and biting rx). Additional medication can be prescribed to help decrease the secondary infections (bacteria and yeast). Most of the traditional prescribed drugs lack effectiveness and have the potential for accumulative, adverse effects. In addition, over time they become costly and time consuming, thus reducing the owners compliance.Dr. Kraemer has been offering stem cell therapy for dogs and cats for nearly a decade and is a leading provider of a number of non-pharmaceutical/alternative therapeutic modalities. These new age, non-pharmaceutical alternatives such as Laser therapy, Pulse Electromagnetic Therapy (PEMT), and Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) can all help manage your pets chronic pain andarthritis, as well as assist in treating a wide range of animal diseases and medical conditions. Dr. Kraemer also offers a low cost Cryobanking programs for future stem cell treatments.

Stem Cell Therapy for atopic allergic itch dermatitis in pets is low risk since you are reintroducing your pets own natural repair cells. Dr. Kraemers in-house stem cell therapy service has the advantage over other stem cell providers because the extracting, processing, and treating is all done on location the same day, thus eliminating unnecessary and unwanted cell death due to transportation and time gap between extraction and treatment.

Stem Cell Therapy for atopic itch Skin Allergy in dogs and cats before & after photos treated by Dr. Kraemer

Dr. Kraemers Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats Tip #1: Any pet, dog or cat when presented with itching, red irritated skin, patchy hair, bumps, color change and thickness of the effected skin, should suspect allergic atopic itch dermatitis to be the cause.

Dr. Kraemers Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats Tip #2:Allergic atopic itch dermatitis in most pets, dogs and cats is localized to the ears, paws, legs, arm pits and abdomen.

Dr. Kraemers Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats Tip #3:Common allergens effecting dogs and cats suspected of itch atopic allergic dermatitis include grass, weeds and trees as well as indoor allergens like mold, dust mites and human dandruff.

Dr. Kraemers Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and CatsTip #4:For your petswith itching and allergy dermatitis who are under a year old , I recommend an elimination dietary trial to rule out food allergies

Dr. Kraemers Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats Tip #5: Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) allows for an adjunctive autologous value to be added to the stem cell fraction. Platelet Rich Plasma is derived from an autologous whole blood sample from the patient and once processed yields many healing growth factors. PRP can help with survival of the cells upon introducing to the patient, reduce inflammation as well as provide cyto-protective properties when transit is necessary.

Dr. Kraemers Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats Tip #6:You should use a flea preventative on your pet especially in geographic location where fleas are common.

Dr. Kraemers Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats Tip #7: OTC antihistamines can be used for dog skin allergies like atopic itch dermatitis but its therapeutic effect is questionable.

2 months post stem cell therapy treatment for a bulldog with a severe form of atopic allergic dermatitis

Dr. Kraemers Stem Cell Therapy for skin allergy in Dogs and Cats Tip #8:Treating allergic atopic itch dermatitis should involvebathing your pet with medicated shampoos and conditioners like Dr. Kraemers V4B Itchy Skin Medicated Shampoo as well as frequent use of medicated lotions like Dr. Kraemer V4B waterless lotions line. I usually also recommend topical medicated shampoos like Dr. Kraemers V4B Antiseptic Medicated Shampoo and V4B Yeasty Lotion to help manage the secondary infection.

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Stem cell technology is a new and exciting branch of veterinary medicine. Stem cells are cells that can be safely harvested from a variety of adult animal tissues. Once harvested, the stem cells can be injected and induced to grow into a large number of different cell types.

Stem cell therapy offers the possibility of using these stem cells to grow into replacements for injured or diseased tissues such as bone, cartilage, muscle, nerves, and so on. What makes this such an exciting treatment option is that it allows us to introduce real tissue replacements for damaged tissues, rather than artificial replacement implants. Currently stem cell therapy for dogs is being used with some success to treat bone, joint, and ligament problems.

The technology involves the use of adult stem cells, which can be easily obtained, without any harm to the host animal from which they are taken. A small amount of adipose (fat) tissue is surgically removed from a host animal and a centrifuge is used to separate the stem cells from the fat tissue. The stem cells collected are then injected directly into the injured joint, ligament, or bone where they quickly begin to grow, replacing the damaged tissue with new, healthy tissue.

Stem cell therapy holds immense promise for becoming a viable treatment option for a variety of health issues dog's face.

At Prestige Animal Hospital, we believe that providing your canine companion with the highest quality medical care means being on the cutting edge of the latest technologies and procedures. This is reflected in every aspect of our approach to stem cell therapy for dogs. Our facilities feature state-of-the-art equipment, and our veterinary team stays up to date on the latest canine stem cell research available.

The ideal candidate for canine stem cell therapy is a dog in otherwise good health that suffers from arthritis or hip dysplasia, and who doesn't respond well to his or her medication. Or, a dog whose quality of life might further suffer due to invasive surgical procedures. Because canine stem cell therapy uses the patient's own tissues, a canine must be in overall good health in order for any collected stem cells to be effective.

Canine stem cells are collected through removing either fat cells, or various other applicable tissues from a dog's body. Within these tissues and cells exist regenerative cells that are known colloquially as dog stem cells. The regenerative cells that are collected do several things:

The best part is that canine stem cells are not synthetic cells being added to a living, biological organism. Rather, canine stem cells are a dog's own natural healing cells, Because of this, there is much less chance of rejection or adverse interaction, and there are also fewer potential side effects.

Due to the infancy of canine stem cell research and therapies, there is not yet a large body of information about possible adverse side effects. Just like any medical procedure, the risk for adverse side effects from dog stem cell therapy are ever-present. Risks could be associated with the tissue removal procedure, or from a patient's body rejecting the newly placed cells. Other issues with stem cell therapy for dogs include its effectiveness when used alone. This is because the prescription of traditional medication will accompany stem cell therapy procedures.

Deciding whether or not stem cell therapy for dogs is the right choice for your beloved canine companion is a very personal one. No matter what route you choose to take, we are here to help you make the decision that is in the best interest of your dog, and also that fits your budget and lifestyle.

At this time, most stem cell research for dogs currently focuses on treating bone, joint, and ligament problems, rather than treating more advanced illnesses and diseases. We are extremely confident that the day will come when many canine illnesses and diseases can be treated through advances in canine stem cell research.

One thing seems to be clear, stem cell research for dogs promises to revolutionize the veterinary industry, and is already showing good results with canines that have been treated with dog stem cells to repair joints, bones, or ligaments that have been damaged by injury or disease. We are here to help educate you about the latest canine stem cell research advances, and answer any other questions about dog stem cell therapy you might have.

If you would like to discuss how stem cell therapy can benefit your dog, please contact us to schedule an appointment. Our veterinary team can help you decide whether or not canine stem cell therapy is the right option, including discussing cost and prognosis.

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Stem Cell Therapy For Dogs - What you should know

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Features June 2013 Issue Looking at ways to improve dogs health and lengthen their lives with stem cell studies.

Just as stem cell research is ushering in a new wave of scientific exploration to heal sick people, studies examining the workings of stem cells are underway for treating sick dogs. To find out just where things are at with stem cell research on dogs behalf, we talked with the Director of the Regenerative Medicine Laboratory at Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Andrew Hoffman, DVM, DVSc, DACVIM.

Andrew Hoffman, DVM, DVSc, DAVIM, Director of Tufts Cummings School's Regenerative Medicine Laboratory, with a friend.

Your Dog: Is stem cell research for dogs subject to the same ethical considerations as for people? For instance, are dog embryos being created just for their stem cells?

Dr. Hoffman: Actually, very little in the field of stem cell research, either for dogs or for people, has anything to do with growing embryos that are then destroyed.

Your Dog: But isnt that how stem cells are grown?

Dr. Hoffman: For all intents and purposes, no. Its true that a developing embryo, no matter what the species, contains stem cells cells that are undifferentiated and therefore arent yet slated to become specific tissue in the body. But its not true that stem cells can be harvested only from developing embryos and nowhere else.

Your Dog: Where, then, can stem cells be obtained for research, or, when their uses are understood and confirmed, for curing or treating dire diseases?

Dr. Hoffman: Common sources include umbilical tissue, bone marrow, and body fat.

Your Dog: Body fat?

Dr. Hoffman: Yes. A developing embryo has three different types of cells, that is, three major embryonic layers of cells that lodge in different tissue once the animal (or person) is developed. The outer layer of cells is the ectoderm, which later forms skin, nerves, and parts of the eye. In the middle come the mesenchymal cells that layer is called the mesoderm and innermost, the endodermal cells.

The most commonly used stem cells in both animal and human research are those which are believed to arise from the middle mesoderm layer, which in mature animals and people can be found in bone marrow, fat stores, and connective tissues of all organs. Theyre the ones that are easiest to grow and harvest in large numbers and then package and prepare for therapeutic application. The cells of the other two layers are more difficult to grow to sufficient numbers, and they also cause a greater immune response in the recipient; theres a greater chance of rejection. So in part, the field as a whole has gone down the easiest path, and in part has selected a cell type that is better tolerated by recipients.

Fortunately, the cells of this middle layer the mesenchymal stem cells, or MSCs, as we call them have demonstrated that they have really broad repair potential. They release a lot of chemicals that stimulate the growth of healthy cells in the body. They stimulate wound repair. MSCs are the golden boys of stem cell therapy right now. There are very few stem cells trials right now that arent using them.

Your Dog: Are you saying that stem cells from fat tissue can be taken from a dog and then injected into a sick part of her body, where they grow into healthy cells to help specific body tissue or a diseased organ repair itself?

Dr. Hoffman: Many people have a notion that stem cells have the capacity to convert themselves into a variety of cell types after transplantation and thus resupply cells in damaged tissues such as kidney cells or heart cells or bone. However, only a very small amount of stem cell research right now is directed at what we call engraftment stem cells attaching to particular tissue or organs and then maturing into cells of those organs. Thats not to say that engraftment isnt of great interest. Even here at the veterinary school at Tufts, we have research in place to regrow a lung, a situation that requires engraftment, cell conversion (differentiation), and cell division (proliferation). Scientists at other research institutions are looking at regenerating heart muscle cells or producing retinal cells that engraft and live on in the eye.

This type of research on stem cells as replacement cells is, however, a small fraction of the research that goes into therapies. Certainly, clinical trials are not focused on using stem cells to replace damaged cells, for example, to get a paralyzed animal [or person] to walk again by injecting stem cells into the spinal cord that turn into nerve cells. This is coming; its only a matter of time before scientists perfect growing up a patients own cells to rejuvenate a part of the body that no longer works, or no longer works properly. Currently, though, the majority of stem cell clinical trials are just about getting stem cells to influence damaged or reserve (healthy) cells in a particular part of the body by releasing signals in the form of chemicals. Thats where the momentum is for the foreseeable future. Stem cells in mature fat tissue or bone marrow couldnt even change into other types of cells; thats where youd need more primitive cells such as embryonic or now, reprogrammed embryonic-like cells.

Your Dog: But why would you want stem cells to just release chemicals? What good would that do?

Dr. Hoffman: Chemicals sent forth from MSCs that middle layer of stem cells lodged in fat tissue and bone marrow have the ability to stimulate repair and regeneration of cells already in place. For example, they stimulate new blood vessel formation, or better closure of wounds. Thats currently where their value lies.

Your Dog: Can you give an example of the specific research taking place?

Dr. Hoffman: We have a faculty member at the Cummings School who has just started a clinical trial in which shes looking at the impact of stem cells on the survival of dogs that have life-threatening kidney disease. Again, shes not injecting dogs with stem cells that she hopes will engraft onto sick kidneys and take over for the sick cells, proliferating to the point of growing whole new kidney tissue. Its about getting the stem cells in there to exert a positive effect on the compromised cells that need help, or coax healthy cells that remain to replace damaged cells. In this particular case, we hope that the MSCs reduce an over-active immune system that is attacking the kidneys.

We have another faculty member who is starting a clinical trial to treat an autoimmune liver disease that afflicts Labrador retrievers and is generally fatal. She hopes to arrest liver inflammation and cirrhosis, or scarring also by reducing the immune response.

Your Dog: How is the research done?

Dr. Hoffman: The stem cells either get injected intravenously (as is the case in the examples of clinical trials at Tufts), or at the site of the problem. When injected intravenously, cells home to different parts of the body (e..g., lung, liver, kidney) and release chemicals locally to those tissues. In the scenario when cells are injected directly into tissues, the cells remain in a holding pattern in that region and release their beneficial chemicals there.

Your Dog: What happens to the stem cells after that?

Dr. Hoffman: They die, mostly. Within about 72 hours, most MSCs are gone. Thats why theyre not being looked at for engraftment and cell proliferation. They simply dont last long enough. That would take the other kinds of stem cells, the ones that come from embryonic tissue or newly discovered reprogrammed cells. But theyre much harder to harvest and grow. And unless the cells are harvested ahead of time from the recipient patient, theyre much more prone to rejection by the body into which theyre injected. MSCs, on the other hand, are popular in research because theyre almost devoid of the main trigger for starting an immune response. The immune system of the tissue into which they are injected doesnt recognize them as foreign to the point that they can be used almost interchangeably between patients without worry that a big immune response will make an unhealthy dog even sicker than she already is. There are some minor reactions, but theyre so minor that even multiple injections of the cells generally do not incite a negative reaction.

Your Dog: Why would you inject stem cells multiple times?

Dr. Hoffman: Because they dont last long. If you want a long-term beneficial effect, several, sometimes many, doses of stem cells are needed. It might be 10 to 20 million cells per injection, which isnt a lot.

Your Dog: How have results been so far?

Dr. Hoffman: Results in clinical trials to date have been promising but not conclusive. There are a lot more veterinarians using stems cells in their practices than there are study results to support their use. No clinical trial has as yet proven, without a shadow of doubt, a clear benefit. This is largely due to the limited size of studies, and the fact that important controls were left out. These studies are very difficult to do for the simple reason that these are our companion animals, and no one wants to be included in a clinical trial and receive either unproven or ineffective treatments or placebos (which have no effects), and no one wants their pet to experience adverse side effects.

With that in mind, one of my pet peeves is the current high expense for stem cells where they have not yet been shown to be valuable. Many people fork over $1,500 to $2,500 to treat their dog or their horse with stem cells, and we dont have the clinical trial data to support recommending those therapies. This seems to be mostly the case for musculoskeletal treatments to ameliorate, say, the symptoms of arthritis or tendon injuries. Companies claim they are seeing benefits in patients that are treated with their MSCs, but the publications are not there for dogs (or humans, for that matter) to support this claim. Theres some research out there, and its provocative, but there is always a question about how much money is worth spending on an unproven therapy, which is often the case with new therapies in veterinary medicine. At this point the medical community, both veterinary and otherwise, is simply trying to understand the merits of stem cell treatments. Were trying to design trials that are objective and ethical and wont hurt the patient while allowing us to garner the information we need. At this point, we have a lot of grade C and D evidence out there, not a lot of As and Bs.

It is also important to note that, unlike the situation in human medicine, stem cells are unregulated thus far in veterinary medicine, so the safety and efficacy and protocols used to generate cells by companies is not under intense scrutiny yet. But this will also come. Tufts is preparing for this inevitability by producing cells in-house, and working on new methods to improve quality and potency of the cells.

Your Dog: Where do you see the field of stem cell research headed in, say, five or 10 years?

Dr. Hoffman: Its headed toward reprogramming or activating stem cells to think. This is a very new area. The process of reprogramming stem cells so that they become particular types of cells (heart cells, nerves, etc.) was only first written up in 2006. And here we are now, talking about it, not only within the scientific community but in the lay community, too. I suspect that within the next five to 10 years for MSCs and the next 10 to 20 years for reprogrammed cells, application of stem cells to treat or even cure disease will have been proven and documented and used as a conventional part of veterinary practice.

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